The results show a large potential to decrease the environmental impact for both techniques, but it is strongly dependent on the electricity mix. Furthermore, this work shows that is is important to include the environmental impact of the infrastructure itself in life cycle analyses, because it can has a significant share in the total emissions. Finally, it is pointed out that it often not is the case that the emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents are the most important impact. It is therefore crucial to use a more holistic perspective in life cycle impact assessments. This work has identified a number of factors with large relevance but also large uncertainty. It is therefore recommended to fill the identified knowledge gaps and to expand the presented models with more factors and more alternative techniques, to get a more detailed picture of which solution is the best stepping stone on Sweden’s way to a sustainable future.
Published as: Schulte, J.P.M., 2015. Smarta steg på väg mot hållbara transporter? Växjö: Linnaeus University. Available at: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46795.