This Licentiate thesis by Lisiana Nurhadi aimed to explore support for development of the current transport sector in a sustainable direction that could be attractive to the users and actors involved. More specifically, the aim was to develop a new approach to examining the economic and socio-ecological sustainability effects of various road vehicles for private travelling and related business models. A special focus was set on comparing various bus systems for public transport and ways (business models) for private people to access cars. The main comparison parameters were the TCO and CO2 emissions for the studied alternatives.
Paper A was a first theoretical test of the new approach for a public bus transport system primarily using several energy carriers (diesel, biodiesel, biogas, and electricity) in different powertrains (internal combustion engines, electric hybrids, and pure electric). Paper B was a follow-up study to Paper A that emphasized sensitivity analysis of TCO for two electric buses with different driving ranges and different types of chargers. The idea with paper B was to deepen the study of the economic aspect of LCC from Paper A. Paper C was another follow-up study of Papers A and B and it was focused on real-life testing and the verification of assumptions and results from the previous studies. It also investigated whether electric buses are suitable for use in public transport. Paper D further developed the new approach and assessed the sustainability performance of various business models for cars.
Published as: Nurhadi, L., 2016. An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona. ISBN 978-91-7295-327-7
Papers included in the thesis:
Paper A: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny, H., 2014. Advancing from Efficiency to Sustainability in Swedish Medium-Sized Cities: An approach for Recommending Powertrains and Energy Carriers for Public Bus Transport Systems. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 111, 1218–1225.
Paper B: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny, H., 2014. Sensitivity Analysis of Total Cost of Ownership for Electric Public Bus Transport Systems in Swedish Medium-Sized Cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 3, 818–827.
Paper C: Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., 2016. Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment (ICSUTE), Madrid, Spain, March 24-25, 2016.
Paper D: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny , H., Larsson, T .C., 2016. Competitiveness and Sustainability effects of cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions . Journal of Cleaner Production.