Paper A was a first theoretical test of the new approach for a public bus transport system primarily using several energy carriers (diesel, biodiesel, biogas, and electricity) in different powertrains (internal combustion engines, electric hybrids, and pure electric). Paper B was a follow-up study to Paper A that emphasized sensitivity analysis of TCO for two electric buses with different driving ranges and different types of chargers. The idea with paper B was to deepen the study of the economic aspect of LCC from Paper A. Paper C was another follow-up study of Papers A and B and it was focused on real-life testing and the verification of assumptions and results from the previous studies. It also investigated whether electric buses are suitable for use in public transport. Paper D further developed the new approach and assessed the sustainability performance of various business models for cars.
Published as: Nurhadi, L., 2016. An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona. ISBN 978-91-7295-327-7
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Papers included in the thesis:
Paper A: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny, H., 2014. Advancing from Efficiency to Sustainability in Swedish Medium-Sized Cities: An approach for Recommending Powertrains and Energy Carriers for Public Bus Transport Systems. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 111, 1218–1225.
Paper B: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny, H., 2014. Sensitivity Analysis of Total Cost of Ownership for Electric Public Bus Transport Systems in Swedish Medium-Sized Cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 3, 818–827.
Paper C: Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., 2016. Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment (ICSUTE), Madrid, Spain, March 24-25, 2016.
Paper D: Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny , H., Larsson, T .C., 2016. Competitiveness and Sustainability effects of cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions . Journal of Cleaner Production.